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Title: Dissemination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and metabolites from wastewater treatment plant to soils and agricultural crops via real-scale different agronomic practices
Authors: Dolu, Taylan
Nas, Bilgehan
Keywords: Agricultural irrigation
Plant uptake
Sewage sludge
Soil amendment
Wastewater reuse
Personal Care Products
Transformation Products
Emerging Contaminants
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science
Abstract: One of the most consumed pharmaceutical subgroups across the world is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, the dissemination of these compounds to the natural environments through agronomic practices is a serious global problem. The hypothesis of this study is to reveal the transition of selected NSAIDs, paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBU), and naproxen (NAP) together with six main metabolites, detected in raw/treated wastewater (RWW/TWW) and sewage sludge generated in an urban wastewater treat-ment plant (WWTP) to soils and agricultural crops (corn, barley, sunflower, and sugar beet) through two widely applied agronomic practices, irrigation with TWW and application of sewage sludge as soil amendment. In other words, the cycles of 10 NSAIDs have been evaluated by simultaneously monitoring their concentrations in RWW/ TWW, sewage sludge, soils, and crops. It was determined that the parent compounds and detected metabolites were treated at quite higher removal efficiencies (93.4 - >99.9%) in the studied WWTP, while DCF was elim-inated poorly (7.9-52.2%). However, although it changes seasonally for some compounds, it was determined that the concentrations of almost all investigated NSAIDs increased at the determined irrigation points in the discharge channel (DC) where agricultural irrigations were performed. Apart from that, DCF, NAP, and 2-hydroxyibuprofen (2-OH-IBU) were always detected in sewage sludge seasonally up to about 20.5, 11.3, and 3.7 ng/g, respectively. While 2-OH-IBU was determined as the dominant metabolite in RWW, TWW, and sewage sludge, the metabolite of 1-hydroxyibuprofen (1-OH-IBU) was determined as the dominant compound in soils. Although 1-OH-IBU was not detected in TWW and sewage sludge in any season, detecting this metabolite as a common compound in all investigated soils (up to 60.1 ng/kg) reveals that this compound is the primary transformation product of IBU in soils. It was observed that at least one of the metabolites of IBU (1-OH-IBU and/ or 2-OH-IBU) was detected in all plants grown (up to 0.75 ng/g), especially during the periods when both agricultural practices were applied. In addition, the detection of 1-OH-IBU with increasing concentrations from root to shoots in corn grown as a result of both agronomic practices shows that this compound has a high translocation potential in the corn plant. Apart from this, it was determined that PAR was detected in corn (up to 43.3 ng/kg) and barley (up to 16.8 ng/kg) within the scope of irrigation with TWW, and NAP was detected in sugar beet (up to 11.2 ng/kg) through sewage sludge application.
ISSN: 0013-9351
Appears in Collections:PubMed İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / PubMed Indexed Publications Collections
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collections
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collections

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