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|Title:||GPS + Galileo + BDS-3 medium to long-range single-baseline RTK: an alternative for network-based RTK?||Authors:||Ogutcu, S.
|Keywords:||GPS/Galileo/BDS-3; long baseline; Partial ambiguity resolution; real-time kinematic||Issue Date:||2023||Publisher:||Cambridge University Press||Abstract:||Thanks to the development of the real-time kinematic (RTK) algorithm and the emerging Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), especially for Galileo and BeiDou-3, reliable positioning accuracy for medium and long-baseline RTK became possible globally. Moreover, with the development of the GNSS receiver hardware, baseline length limitations due to radio-based communications are removed thanks to internet-based communication. In this work, single-baseline RTK, incorporated partial ambiguity resolution with troposphere and ionosphere weighting, using GPS (G), Galileo (E), BeiDou-3 (C3) and multi-GNSS (GE and GEC3), is conducted with real GNSS data of EUREF Permanent GNSS network under three different cutoff angles (10°, 20°, and 30°) for six different lengths of baselines (∼50, ∼150, ∼250, ∼350, ∼450, and ∼550 km). The results show that the multi-GNSS RTK solution significantly contributed to the positioning accuracy and convergence time of the single-system RTK solutions. Based on the results, non-available epoch-wise solutions for the high-degree cutoff angles are more obvious for the single-system RTK, whereas multi-GNSS solutions provide 100% solutions for each cutoff angle and baseline. The results indicate that instantaneous and a few epochs single-epoch ambiguity resolution is feasible for 50, 150, 250 and 350 km baseline lengths for multi-GNSS RTK. Based on the positioning results, horizontal-vertical positioning improvements of multi-GNSS RTK (GEC3) compared with the single-system GPS RTK are found as 50%-37%, 40%-35%, 55%-47%, 53%-54%, 57%-49% and 57%-49% for 50, 150, 250, 350, 450 and 550 km, respectively, under a 10° cutoff angle. For 20° and 30° cutoff angles, the accuracy improvements are much higher. The convergence time improvements (n/e/u) of multi-GNSS RTK (GEC3) compared with the single-system GPS RTK are found as 86/92/75%, 77/67/72%, 75/77/83%, 53/56/52%, 69/49/62%, and 52/45/39% for 50, 150, 250, 350, 450 and 550 km, respectively, under a 10° cutoff angle. Copyright © The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Royal Institute of Navigation.||URI:||https://doi.org/10.1017/S0373463323000243
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collections|
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checked on Dec 4, 2023
checked on Dec 4, 2023
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