Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.13091/2999
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dc.contributor.authorErbaş, Hilal Arıol-
dc.contributor.authorBozdağ, Ayla-
dc.date.accessioned2022-10-08T20:50:04Z-
dc.date.available2022-10-08T20:50:04Z-
dc.date.issued2022-
dc.identifier.issn0375-6505-
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2022.102543-
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.13091/2999-
dc.description.abstractThe Gazlıgöl geothermal field located in 20 km northern of Afyonkarahisar in Western Anatolia region of Turkey is one of the most important geothermal areas in the Afyon-Akşehir Graben on the basis of potential. The present study has been performed to investigate the hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics and evaluate the origin, reservoir temperature and processes controlling the chemical composition of thermal waters of the Gazlıgöl geothermal field. Discharge temperature, electrical conductivity and pH of the thermal waters vary from 58.5 to 74 °C, 3910 µS/cm to 4050 µS/cm and, 7.05 to 7.54, respectively. The Gazlıgöl thermal waters are chemically of Na-HCO3 type, with high salinity, while the cold waters have mainly Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 types, with low salinity. Geochemical processes controlling chemical composition of the thermal waters are mainly water-rock interactions including dissolution and/or weathering of mostly silicates and partially carbonates and ion-exchange reactions. Besides, the bacterial sulfate reduction is another main process leading to the depletion of SO4 in the thermal water. Higher contents of some minor elements in the thermal waters, such as F, B, Li, As and Sr, are probably derived from enhanced water-rock interaction, and the minor elements can be regarded as indicator of residence times and flow paths. Geothermometer applications including quartz geothermometers and SiO2-K2/Mg, mineral saturation state and silica enthalpy mixing models provide the most reliable estimations of reservoir temperature in the varying of 100-150 °C for the Gazlıgöl thermal waters. Accordingly, the Gazlıgöl geothermal system can be classified as a low-moderate geothermal resource. The isotope data (?18O, ?2H and 3H) of the thermal waters point to their deep circulating meteoric origin, and let estimating of recharge elevation varying from 1300 to 1400 m.a.s.l. These elevations suggest the mountainous region in the north-northeastern of the study area as the recharge area of the geothermal system. Long-term circulation of meteoric waters within the aquifer is confirmed by low tritium ratios (< 1 TU) of the thermal waters although the fluids do not achieve thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on the all gathering data, a conceptual model of the functioning of geothermal system has been constructed. Accordingly, geothermal fluid is heating at deep zones due to the high geothermal gradient caused by active fault systems and heated waters rise toward the shallow levels through faults and fractures. During moving to the surface, they undergo conductive cooling by mixing with the cold groundwater at shallow depths and during contacting with the colder rocks. © 2022 Elsevier Ltden_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors would like to thank Yusuf Ulutürk, General Manager of Afyon Geothermal Facilities Tourism Industry Trade Incorporated Business (AFJET) for the field study support.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherElsevier Ltden_US
dc.relation.ispartofGeothermicsen_US
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/closedAccessen_US
dc.subjectGazlıgölen_US
dc.subjectGeothermometryen_US
dc.subjectHydrogeochemistryen_US
dc.subjectIsotopesen_US
dc.subjectThermal wateren_US
dc.subjectWertern anatoliaen_US
dc.subjectAquifersen_US
dc.subjectCalcium compoundsen_US
dc.subjectGeothermal fieldsen_US
dc.subjectGeothermal wellsen_US
dc.subjectHydrochemistryen_US
dc.subjectIon exchangeen_US
dc.subjectMagnesium compoundsen_US
dc.subjectProcess controlen_US
dc.subjectSilicaen_US
dc.subjectSilicatesen_US
dc.subjectSodium compoundsen_US
dc.subjectSulfur compoundsen_US
dc.subjectWeatheringen_US
dc.subjectAnatoliaen_US
dc.subjectGazlıgolen_US
dc.subjectGeothermal fluidsen_US
dc.subjectGeothermal systemsen_US
dc.subjectGeothermometryen_US
dc.subjectHydro geochemistriesen_US
dc.subjectHydrogeochemicalen_US
dc.subjectThermal watersen_US
dc.subjectWertern anatoliaen_US
dc.subjectWestern Anatoliaen_US
dc.subjectIsotopesen_US
dc.subjectgeothermal gradienten_US
dc.subjectgeothermal systemen_US
dc.subjectgeothermometryen_US
dc.subjectisotopic compositionen_US
dc.subjectthermal wateren_US
dc.subjectwater chemistryen_US
dc.subjectAfyonen_US
dc.subjectAnatoliaen_US
dc.subjectTurkeyen_US
dc.titleHydrogeochemical characteristics and evaluation of the geothermal fluids in the Gazlıgöl geothermal field (Afyonkarahisar), Western Anatolia, Turkeyen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.geothermics.2022.102543-
dc.identifier.scopus2-s2.0-85135698119en_US
dc.departmentFakülteler, Mühendislik ve Doğa Bilimleri Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümüen_US
dc.identifier.volume105en_US
dc.identifier.wosWOS:000888203000002en_US
dc.institutionauthorErbaş, Hilal Arıol-
dc.institutionauthorBozdağ, Ayla-
dc.relation.publicationcategoryMakale - Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi - Kurum Öğretim Elemanıen_US
dc.authorscopusid57837286200-
dc.authorscopusid55354186300-
dc.identifier.scopusqualityQ1-
item.fulltextWith Fulltext-
item.grantfulltextembargo_20300101-
item.languageiso639-1en-
item.openairecristypehttp://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_18cf-
item.openairetypeArticle-
item.cerifentitytypePublications-
crisitem.author.dept02.07. Department of Geological Engineering-
Appears in Collections:Mühendislik ve Doğa Bilimleri Fakültesi Koleksiyonu
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collections
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collections
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